Unfortunately, at this point, I think your tech department is right. The only way I know of connecting chromebooks to Android devices for live development is wirelessly.
The best (but still not great) option I can think of would be to compile/build your apps when they need to be tested. It’s what programmers used to have to do, so might be part of a history of computing lesson?
I hope this is a help – I wish there were a better answer,